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Friday, 22 June 2012 10:12

Palestinians in Lebanon

Population demographics

 

Never was a census taken of Palestine refugees living in Lebanon. Only UNRWA’s registration system

gives some data but is inaccurate given the massive emigration of Palestinians. This survey allows for the first time to estimate accurately the total number of refugees living in Lebanon. Of the 455,000 refugees registered with UNRWA since 1948, only 260,000-280,000 currently reside in Lebanon. About a quarter live in Tyre, Saida and Beirut areas, one fifth in the North and 4% in the Beqaa. More than half of the refugee population lives in camps (62%) as compared to 38% living in gatherings, mainly in camp vicinity.

Based on the household survey results, 53% of refugees are women and the Palestine refugee population is young, with an average age of 30 years, and half of the population is younger than 25 year-old. The average household size is 4.5 members, compared to 4.2 for Lebanese households.

(Socio-Economic Survey of Palestine Refugees in Lebanon – December 2010)

 

Livelihoods

 

Many Palestinian workers are discouraged from working: 56% of refugees are jobless and only 37% of the working age population is employed. The Palestinian refugee labor force reaches 120,000, of which 53,000 are working. Joblessness among refugees has a strong gender dimension: Only 13% of women are employed compared to 65% of men. Those with a job are often in low status,casual and precarious employment. Our survey shows that 21% of employed refugees work in seasonal employment, and only 7% of those employed have a contract. Very few have a second job (3%) indicating the scarcityof even low quality employment. Most refugees have low qualifications: 6% of the Palestinian labor force has university training, compared to 20% for the Lebanese labor force. Though employment differs little across regions, quality of employment does. The share of those employed in low status elementary occupations is highest in Tyre while the share of high status

professionals and senior officials is highest in the North. Nearly a quarter of workers in Tyre are

employed in the agricultural sector and 87% of all agricultural workers live in Tyre. People working

in elementary occupations or the agricultural sector are more likely to belong to the working poor than

those working in other professions.

Survey results show that education can help refugees secure more and better jobs. A refugee with a

vocational or university degree is more likely to be employed than one holding a Brevet (officialdiploma qualifying entry into secondary) or lower. Moreover, of those with a university degree, 70% work as professionals or associated professionals, while those with a Brevet or less work mainly in crafts andelementary occupations. Employment rates for women who attended further education are also higher. Half of women with a university degree work and 43% of those with a vocational degree do.

Yet refugees till face many challenges in their educational attainment. Survey results show that 8% of

those between 7 and 15 years old were not at school in 2010. In addition to this, two thirds of xi

Palestinians above the age of 15 do not have Brevet, compared to a Lebanese rate of 50%. Only 50% of youths in Secondary school age (16-18 years old) are enrolled in education. Half of those live in the

South, though attendance varies significantly within regions. Education is central to improving

livelihoods among refugees, as household heads with Brevet or more are less likely to have poor or food insecure households. As for higher education, only 13% of refugees older than 18 have the

Baccalaureate or higher, compared to 17% for the Lebanese population.

(Socio-Economic Survey of Palestine Refugees in Lebanon – December 2010)

 

Around 422,000 refugees are registered with UNRWA in Lebanon, with many living in the country’s 12 refugee camps.

Palestine refugees make up an estimated ten per cent of Lebanon, a small country which is now densely populated.

Palestinian refugees in Lebanon do not enjoy several basic human rights, for example, they do not have the right to work in as many as 70 professions. Palestine refugees are not formally citizens of another state, so they are not able to claim the same rights as other foreigners living and working in Lebanon. Palestine refugees in Lebanon face a number of specific problems:

  • Lack of social and civil rights
  • No access to public social services
  • Very limited access to public health or educational facilities.

 

Most Palestinian refugees rely entirely on UNRWA as the sole provider of education, health and relief and social Health Conditions A third of the Palestine refugee population is estimated to have chronic illness and 4% a functional disability. Hypertension is particularly prevalent, which is cause for concern considering changing eating habits outlined above. This strongly affects poverty. All households with a disabled head of household live in extreme poverty. According to the Socio-Economic Survey of Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon conducted by the Amercian University in Beirut in 2010, The reported rate of chronic illness was significantly higher than that reported in older surveys. Previously the rate was at 19% (Ugland, 2003) whereas now our data depicts chronic illness rates at 31%.The difference in reporting may be a product of an aging Palestinian population, as demographic research has noted a precipitate decline in fertility rates among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon in the last few decades (Ugland 2003). Comparing the results to the Lebanese population, it is clear that Palestinian refugees have almost double the prevalence of chronic illnesses with 17% for the former and 31% for the latter (LNHS, 2004). The estimated prevalence of chronic illness among Palestine refugees is 31%. The types of chronic illness were diverse, and include hypertension (32%), back pain (9%), asthma (9%), diabetes (8%), rheumatism (6%), heart problems (4%), and epilepsy (3%).

Acute illnesses pose a particular risk for the Palestine refugee population, most of which live around the poverty line, since they often lead to extra-ordinary expenses and periods out of work. Considering that 95% of the population are without insurance and most of them in precarious employment, they are unlikely to receive indemnities or sick leaves, thus a case of acute illness may push a household into poverty. According to the Socio-Economic Survey of Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon conducted by the American University in Beirut in 2010 population wide, prevalence was high (24%), although this percentage gained precipitately among the older population. Among both the youngest and middle age group, 6 month prevalence was 23% and 22% respectively. The rate, however, was 36% among those 55 years and older, more than a 50% increase over the other age groups. The most common types of illnesses reported were cold/flu and other respiratory problems (36%), gastrointestinal (19%), musculoskeletal (9%), and urinary/reproductive problems (6%).

As for mental health, 21% stated that they experienced depression, anxiety or distress. Men reported better self-rated health scores than women. In general, women report a higher incidence of chronic and psychological disorders and lower self-rated health scores, while men are more likely to suffer functional disability.

 

Palestinians receive health services from a wide variety of care providers, though mainly from the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), Palestinian Red Crescent Society (PRCS) , nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and private clinics. Past studies on health care utilization have identified UNRWA as the primary provider of health services to Palestinian refugees in Lebanon. UNRWA provides primary health care services to refugees by way of 29 health centers located in areas with high densities of Palestinian refugees. The services provided by these centers include walk-in general consultations, maternal and child health care services, treatment of chronic diseases, and provision of medications. Many centers also have specialists, dental, and laboratory services available. UNRWA provides most secondary and limited tertiary care services to its constituents,   The PRCS and NGO health centers generally run health clinics focused on providing primary care, along with minimal curative care services. The primary difference between UNRWA and other health providers is that UNRWA provides medications to its patients. (Socio-Economic Survey of Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon conducted by the American University in Beirut in 2010)

Unsurprisingly, average out of pocket health care expenditure is highest for hospitalization. Households with a hospitalized family member spent on average US$614 over the last 6 months. Those with a doctor’s visits due to disability spent US$262, households with an acutely ill family member not requiring hospitalization spent US$ 164 and those with a chronic illness case US$137. Indeed the share of household expenditure on health jumps from 3% to 13% when a family member is chronically ill or disabled.

The refugees’ major concern is the cost of hospitalization. UNRWA provides basic primary healthcare, but is only able to cover the cost of secondary hospital care and partial tertiary care.

Since these costs are beyond the means of most refugees, they often face a choice between foregoing essential medical treatment and falling deeply into debt. Palestine refugees are subject to many employment restrictions that have left them highly dependent on UNRWA as their main relief provider and major employer. In 2005, officially registered Palestine refugees born in Lebanon were allowed by law to work in the clerical and administrative sectors for the first time. However, refugees are still unable to work in some professions, for example, as doctors, dentists, lawyers, engineers or accountants.

The refugee Palestinian workforce is substantially under-employed. Although many do find work, this is often seasonal or casual work for low wages and with no social and welfare benefits.

There are distinct signs that this situation is weakening the community's commitment to education. Many young people see no purpose in continuing their study. Some drop out and find manual work in order to support their families.

At a conference held by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1978, a Declaration of Alma Ata was agreed. The declaration included the following statements: (1) Primary health care is essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound, and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community (2) It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family, and the community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work.

The conference strongly reaffirms that health, which is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, is a fundamental human right.

The concept of Primary Health Care was adopted at the Conference of Alma Ata in 1978. A progressive primary health care approach:

  • Challenges the society to address the socio-economic causes of poor health and makes provision for basic health needs.
  • Encourages community empowerment (ensuring that people are fully able to manage resources that are available to them).
  • Provides comprehensive quality health care including pro motive, preventive, curative, rehabilitative and palliative services.
  • Demands concerned and accountable health worker practice.
  • Prioritizes the people who are most disadvantaged ensuring that health care is accessible, equitable and affordable to all.
  • Recognizes the importance of integrated service provision from primary to tertiary levels of care within a coherent health system.
  • Promotes inter-disciplinary, multi professional and intersect oral collaborative teamwork for development.

 

According to the World Health Report 2008,"Globalization is putting the social cohesion of many countries under stress , and health systems as key constituents of the architecture of contemporary societies , are clearly not performing as well as they could and as they should. "So, there is today a recognition that population is left behind and a sense of lost opportunities that are reminiscent of what gave rise thirty years ago to Alma Ata's paradigm shift in thinking about health. The Alma Ata Conference mobilized a "Primary Health Care movement" of professionals and institutions, government and civil society organizations that undertook to tackle the " politically, socially, and economically unacceptable health inequalities in all countries."

    

On the whole people are healthier, wealthier and live longer today than they did 30 years ago. The once revolutionary notion of essential drugs has become common place. There have been significant improvements in access to water, sanitation, and antenatal care. This shows that progress is possible because knowledge and understanding of health are growing rapidly and accelerated technological revolution is multiplying the potential for improving health and transforming health literacy in a better educated and modernizing global society. However, there are facts that cannot be ignored. First, progressing health over recent decades has been unequal because some countries are still lagging behind or losing ground. Second, the nature of health problems is changing in ways and rates that were only partially anticipated. Third, health systems are not insulated from economic and political crisis.

      

So, it is clear that health systems do not gravitate naturally towards the goal of health for all through primary health care, they are developing in directions that contribute little to equity and social justice and people fail to get the best health outcomes for their money. (World Health Report 2008).

                               

The Mumbai Declaration of the People’s Health Movement states that social, political, economic and environmental threats to health are identified as the basic causes of ill health and the inequitable distribution of health within and between countries has increased. In their call for ending discrimination in the Right to Health, they state that indigenous people in developed and developing countries suffer from health problems at a higher rate than the general population of the country in which they reside. This conclusion clearly applies to the Palestinian refugees residing in Lebanon (The III International Forum for the Defense of the People’s Health, India, January 2004).

In July 2005 approximately 1500 people met at the Second People’s Health Assembly in Cuenca, Ecuador to analyze global health problems and to develop strategies to promote health for all.

PHM (People's Health Movement) calls on the peoples of the world to mobilize against the denial of the Right to Health. The human right to health and health care must take precedence over the profits of corporations. The right to health will be achieved through large scale popular mobilization. PHM will initiate or support struggles related to the right to water, food security and food sovereignty, a healthy environment, dignified work, safe housing, universal education and gender equity, since people’s health depends on the fulfillment of these basic rights.

Equity in access to health information is a fundamental human right. It is essential in the struggle for indigenous people's health. The many useful aspects of traditional medicine and culture must be valued and included as part of a people-oriented society and health system.

The health of women, men and people of diverse sexual orientation is severely damaged by the dominance of a patriarchal culture with social and gender inequities and discrimination that affects their integrity. PHM commits to mainstreaming gender and feminist perspectives in all its work and action plans.

To do so it will support international, regional and local campaigns for sexual and reproductive rights; strengthen communication and work relations with networks and other movements; and work to ensure safe abortion for all women and girls. In addition, people with disabilities and older people should be treated with respect and their right to appropriate health care should be ensured. PHM argues for the inclusion of people with disabilities in all aspects of life.

PHM calls upon the people of the world to support action to end imperialist control of the earth’s natural resources and create and maintain a healthy environment for all. Knowledge and science must be reclaimed for the public good and freed from corporate control.  PHM calls on the people of the world to oppose war and militarization as the most blatant attacks on people’s health, especially the health of women and the poor.

The People’s Health Movement will also work to do the following:

 

  1. Pursue work on the human right to health that includes both individual and community rights.
  2. Continue to struggle for improved ways of working by strengthening its regional as well as its globalIt will continue to develop participatory and transparent decision making so that activists at all levels know that their views are valued. 
  3. Celebrates the inauguration of the International People’s Health University, a university for health activists with courses presented in association with local PHMs and selected universities around the
  4. Engage with formal training institutions and challenge the dominance of the biomedical paradigm of healthIt will incorporate diverse strategies for reorienting health worker education to comprehensive PHC, keeping people in communities at the centre.
  5. Become a forum within which intellectuals can support local activists in their action and struggle.
  6. Challenge the media to disseminate its perspectives and publicize its activities.
  7. Strengthen its communications strategy to reach communities at the grassroots.
  8. Translate as many of its communications as possible into two or more languages; will establish a mix of central and regional/national websites; the PHM newsletter will continue quarterly publication and will be translated into other languages.

One of PARD’s community health workers attended a short course “The Struggle for Health" held from 22-3-2008 till 29-3-2008 in Cairo, Egypt and organized by The International People’s Health University (IPHU) and the People’s Health Movement (PHM).

Sunday, 17 June 2012 12:17

Capacity Building

3.1.              Trainings, Seminars & Conferences:

The team working in the program benefited from a variety of training courses to improve their performances at work.

 

The team involved here consists of:

  1. oReproductive Health Program Coordinator
  2. oFive community health workers (CHW) who are at the same time trainers:

 

 

Subject of Workshop, lecture, or seminar

Beneficiaries

Seminar on Reproductive Health From the Perspective of Human Rights

Reproductive Health Program Coordinator

 

Participation of women in Political and Public Life

Role of women, women NGO's and movements in transitional processes towards democracy

Workshop on Anemia

Rational Use of Medicine

Educational Program for Mother and Child

 

4 Community Health Worker

Mental and Psychological health of the retarded

 

Seminar on Reproductive Health From the Perspective of Human Rights

Marriage, Reproductive Health and Social Roles

3 Community Health Workers

Women’s Empowerment on Reproductive Health issue

5 Community Health Workers

Training course on Indictors in Health Education

12 Health Educators

 

 

 

3.2.              Training on Composting and other subjects:

 

Since one of PARD’s main objectives is to protect the environment thus preserving health, and because one of the most important causes for pollution is garbage piling in cities and towns which will help in transmission of diseases through the insects and rodents which gather around the garbage, PARD is trying to decrease the amount of garbage and pollution in the gatherings.

 

In addition to that, many chemical fertilizers used to grow fruits and vegetables are dangerous to people’s health and well being.

 

So. PARD decided to start a new project “Composting” that will help in decreasing the amount of garbage, percentage of pollution, help in the production of food that has a small amount of chemical materials and limit the amount of chemicals in the soil and water.

 

The composting project which will teach the farmers and families the importance of the compost, and the easiest way to prepare it was divided into different stages:

 

T.O.T. “Training of trainers” on composting for the benefit of PARD’s Community health Workers, the Health Inspector, the first aid team and volunteers.

 

Duration of the workshop was 3 days. The workshop was called “How to prepare your own compost”

 

 

The training context was as follows:

 

  1. zWhat is composting?

Composting is a natural action, where natural creatures found in nature dissemble and dissolute organic wastes and transfers it to natural dung.

 

  1. zImportance of composting:

 

1-       Decrease the environmental damage

2-       Decrease the quantity of accumulated wastes, thus decreasing the percentage of pollution (Water- Air- Soil)

3-       Protect the human health as a result of having agricultural products devoid of chemical materials’ precipitation (poisons used in planting)

4-       Protect some insects that are essential for the human life cycle (Bees and Worms)

5-       Increase the soil fertility (soil vitamin)

6-       Economical benefit for farmers through saving the money they used to pay for buying chemical dung

7-       Obtain agricultural products of good quality and quantity

8-       Increase the profit due to the customers’’ increase in demand on the organic agricultural products

 

As explained earlier, wastes and organic dung are interrelated and have common benefits: decrease the percentage of pollution, decrease the environmental damage. In addition, garbage is a basic part of organic dung to get a good agricultural product.

 

 

  1. zWastes (How is garbage related to compost?):

 

  • Definition:

It is all what we throw outside the house, hospital, industry, popular markets, etc, from food junk and other things that people are no not in need of anymore.

 

  • Kinds of Wastes:

1-       Organic liquid solid wastes

2-       Solid wastes: glass, plastic, iron, etc

3-       Organic wastes: all what is decomposed of food junk (meat, vegetables, etc)

4-       Liquid wastes: sanitation waste water (houses, hospitals, industries, etc)

 

  • Hazards of wastes:

It is necessary to get rid of wastes in the proper health way, else it would be of danger to the environment (Pollution of air, water and soil), the humans (spread of diseases, spread of insects and rodents), and the animals (extinction of certain kinds of animals which threaten the life cycle).

 

  • Role of the family in getting rid of wastes in a proper healthy way:

1-       Secure a proper bin for wastes at home

2-       Put a plastic bag in each bin

3-       Close the bin properly

4-       Do not put liquid wastes in the plastic bin not to prevent its leakage

5-       Put plastic and glass in a separate bin for the ability to benefit from them later on

 

  • Ways to get rid of wastes:

1-       Burning ( + - )

2-       Healthy bury ( + - )

3-       Recycling

4-       Makeshift dumps

5-       Composting

 

Since composting is the most positive way to get rid of house made wastes, we mention hereby the steps to get an organic agricultural product through organic dung:

               

 

Implementing two practical workshops in Shabriha with these main themes:

 

A-      Using a pile to prepare compost

B-       Using a plastic barrel to prepare compost

These two workshops were carried out as an experiment and to introduce the trainees to the principles of composting.

 

 

Other training courses:

 

The community health workers of P          ARD provided training on different health subjects to the Local Health Educators in the Palestinian gatherings. Training courses were as follows:

 

  • Marriage, Reproductive Health and Social Roles Workshop

 

        9 Trained Health Educators received this training in Wasta Dispensary.

The code of conduct was put by the group and it included the importance of discussion, listening, and discussions among a group with different points of views, and the importance of involving all the participants.

 

Family and Social Roles:

-          What is the meaning of a family?

-          What are the roles of the family (social- Biological- Psychological- Educational)?

-          Right to choose the marriage partner and forming a family.

-          Gender – Social Role and Biological role- Fixed and Changing issues- Relation between gender and reproductive health.

-          Diseases and psychological and health problems resulting from behaviors and attitudes relative to the women’s situation in the community.

-          Relation between reproductive Health and her position in the society.

-          Active participation of men and their role in reproductive health.

-          What is the meaning of Reproductive health( knowledge- attitude- behavior)

-          Right of Reproductive Health care

-          Reproductive Health and Sexual education

-          Services in Reproductive Health Sector

An evaluation was conducted at the end of the training course where each participant was given the chance to express themselves through giving their opinions in the subject given and the right to discuss, analyze, and solving the problems.

 

 

  • Training course on Preparation for Married life

 

10 Local Health Educators from the gatherings of Wasta, Jal Al Bahar, Naher El Samer, and members of Wasta Women Committee. The training took place in the dispensary of Wasta.

 

The contents of the training were as follows:

-          Introduction (exercise on the age of marriage among participants)

-          Discussion on positive and negative points on different marriage ages

-          Early marriage (Social and health problems)

-          Dialogue and understanding between parents and children

-          Planning for the future

-          Consultations and medical exams before marriage

-          Experiences from personal lives

 

  • Training course on Care for Early Childhood

 

This course was organized by the Arab Resource Center for a period of 6 months.

 

15 mothers with children aged between 1 and 9 years benefited from this training course. The women joined the training on how to deal with their children once per week.

 

Themes of the training covered were about how to deal with fear, timidity, aggressiveness, school dropouts, agitating, and other matters.

 

Mothers received story books, exercises, instructive materials every week, and then worked out with their children on these subjects.

 

 

  • Training Course on Indicators in Health Education

 

12 Local Health Educators from the South gatherings of Jal Al Baher, Nahr Al Samer, Shabriha, Qasmiyeh, North Burghuliyeh, Aitaniyeh, Kfar Badda

 

The training included the following:

1-       Definition of an indicator

2-       Plan of action of an indicator

(a)- Objectives

(b)-External Actors

(c)-Indicators for project cycle

(d)- Types of indicators to be used (qualitative- quantitative)

The participants were divided into two groups. Each group had to study a different exercise and prepare indicators for understanding and change of behavior. Subjects of the exercises were on Pap smear and breast cancer. The two groups came up with excellent indicators to be used in practice.

Sunday, 17 June 2012 11:38

Participation & Peer Education

Health Education provided by local women

 

Throughout years of long work raising awareness on health issues among women groups, many women became very well informed on several health subjects. Those women mostly have some medical back ground and after years of educating them, they have become good candidates to work as health educators (peer to peer education). Accordingly, they were trained by PARD in health education:

 

This training had three objectives:

 

- Raising Health Awareness

- Providing jobs for the women trainees

- Sustainability of health promotion

 

The chosen participants came from different backgrounds in 13 gatherings. Some are married with or without children with elementary, intermediary or high school education. Others are active members in the women’s committees, nurses or teachers. All had attended health education with PARD since years and participated in PARD’s health and social activities. Some trained with PARD before either on combating illiteracy or empowerment, on first aid or computer, or a combination of those subjects. They chose to train on health education to better the situation in their communities through health promotion.

 

In the year 2009, 16 local women were trained to become local health educators conducting health promotion within their communities, in addition to one male youth (total 17). Every year new courses are given to new women, and refreshing courses are also given to the older ones.

 

 

The criterion for choosing the participants in the training course was based on the following:

 

-          Ability to form a group

-          Ability to prepare health subjects from different resources

-          Ability to convey information accurately and clearly

-          Good communication skills

-          Ability to accept constructive criticism

-          Accepted and liked by the local community

-          Ability to write reports

 

 

Now 4 participants from Beirut (Gaza buildings, Sabra, Saeed Ghawash, and Daouk) and 15 participants from the Southern gatherings (Shabriha, Burghuliyeh, Wasta, Jal Al Baher, Aitaniyeh, Maashouk, Qasmiyeh, Kfar Badda).

               

After training, each of the 23 trainees was followed-up weekly (further training on health subjects and monitoring) by her trainer. In 2011, the trainees produced a lot of work on health promotion as such:

 

 

 

Participants

Groups

Lectures

Women

511

68

332

Children

174

9

128

Youth

61

8

61

Men

6

1

1

Total

752

86

522

 

 

If we add up what both PARD’s community health workers (CHW) and the trainees have produced in health promotion covering Beirut, South and covering women, children, youth and local NGOs, we get the following:

 

 

participants

Participants

Groups

Lectures

Women

922

84

429

Children

348

19

212

Youth

349

21

95

Total

1619

124

736

 

 

Moreover, one lecture was given to a group of 6 men on Diabetes.

 

The local health educators also focused their lectures on reproductive health issues in the gatherings of the South and Beirut. 277 lectures were given to 574 women and youth as such:

 

 

Type of participants

No. of lectures

No. of participants

No. of groups

Women

251

448

14

Youth

26

126

9

Total

277

574

23

 

 

So, the total numbers of beneficiaries among women and youth from reproductive health given by community health workers and local health educators is as follows:

 

 

Type of participants

No. of lectures

No. of participants

No. of groups

Women

379

1078

29

Youth

42

328

17

Total

421

1406

46

 

 

 

 

 

Health Education conducted by 18 trained local health educators:

 

 

Health Education by Trainees- Women- South- 2011

 

Location

No. of groups

No. of participants

No. of lectures

Subjects of lectures

Shabriha

4

30

12

Diabetes, Hypertension, General Hygiene, Diarrhea, Essential drugs, Influenza, Proper disposal of garbage, Composting, Benefits of vitamins, Water preservation, Cardio vascular diseases, Nutrition, Hazards of smoking, Spring allergy, Temperature control, Inflammations, Rheumatism, German measles, Home accidents, food poisoning, Vector control, Scabies, Jaundice, Nutrition of Influenza patient, Lice control, Wounds, Respiratory system inflammations, Common colds, Tonsillitis, Inner Ear inflammations, Thalasymia

Kfar Badda

5

40

46

Qasmiyeh

7

60

68

Maashouk

2

21

28

Burghuliyeh

4

30

11

Jal Al Bahar

2

20

15

Wasta

3

24

38

Nahr El Samer

3

25

30

Aitaniyeh

1

7

2

 

Total

 

33

 

266

 

250

 

 

Health Education by Trainees - Children- South- 2011

 

Location

No. of groups

No. of participants

No. of lectures

Subjects

Males

Females

Nahr El Samer

1

6

5

12

Primary teeth care, water preservation, Personal hygiene, Diarrhea, Clean environment, Lice, Sun stroke, Scabies, General cleanliness, water pollution, Information about blood, Common colds, Essential drugs, Burns, Primary teeth care, Home accidents, Nutrition of influence patients, Proper nutrition, Jaundice, Oral temperature control

Aitaniyeh

1

6

4

4

Burghuliyeh

1

12

12

27

Jal Al Bahar

1

11

6

18

Qasmiyeh

1

34

29

37

Wasta

1

8

8

20

Maashouk

1

5

5

5

Kfar Badda

1

5

4

4

Shabriha

1

5

9

1

Total

9

92

82

128

 

 

 

Health Education by Trainees- Youth- South- 2011

 

Location

No. of groups

No. of participants

No. of Lectures

Subjects

Males

Females

Burghuliyeh

1

2

6

27

Hazards of smoking, Diarrhea, Fast food, Sun stroke, Personal Hygiene, Proper Diets, Personal Hygiene, Influenza, Diabetes

Jal Al Bahar

1

4

2

3

Qasmiyeh

2

6

11

17

Maashouk

1

5

4

1

Shabriha

1

6

2

1

Wasta

1

-

5

5

Nar El Samer

1

6

2

7

Total

8

29

32

61

 

 

 

Health Education by Trainees- Women- Beirut- 2011

 

Location

No. of Groups

No. of Participants

No. of Lectures

Subjects

Said Ghawash

17

144

19

 

Anemia,

Water preservation

and contamination,

Rota Virus

Gaza-1

1

5

14

Gaza-2

3

17

8

Gaza-3

3

22

8

Gaza-4

2

15

8

Daouk

8

35

24

Shatila

1

7

1

Total

35

245

82

 

 

 

Health Education by Trainees – Men – South- 2011

 

Location

No. of Participants

No. of Lectures

Subject

 

Lower Qasmiyeh

 

 

6

 

1

 

Diabetes

 

 

 

Health Education by Trainees –Children- Beirut- 2011

 

Location

No. of Participants

No. of Groups

No. of Lectures

Subjects

Males

Females

Shatila

1

4

1

2

Primary Teeth Care – Nutrition and Anemia

 

Health Lectures by Trainees –Women- Beirut – 2011

 

Location

No. of Groups

No. of Participants

No. of Lectures

Subjects

PARD’s CDC Center

1

5

1

Rota Virus – Hazards of Smoking

Gaza Building s

1

4

1

Shatila

1

2

1

Total

3

11

3

 

 

Education on Reproductive Health by PARD‘s Trainees- Women – South- 2011

 

Location

No. of Lectures

No. of Participants

Subjects

Jal al Bahar

14

21

Genital Inflammations – Anemia – Breast Cancer – Uterus Cancer – Osteoporosis – Nutrition of Pregnant Women – Menopause – Family Planning – Nutrition of Newborn – Puberty – Abortion – Definition of Reproductive Health – Breast Feeding – Growth of Embryo – Prostate – Sexual Relationship – Care of Pregnant Woman – Preparation for Pregnancy – Care of Women after giving birth – Problems of menstruation – Early Marriage – Physiology of Women – Teeth Care during Pregnancy – Dialogue and partnership in Marriage – Pap smear – Preparation of Women in Public Life

Nahr El Samer

9

25

Lower Qasmiyeh

33

37

Wasta

28

24

Kfar Badda

29

51

North Burghuliyeh

16

54

Maashouk

21

21

Upper Qasmiyeh

19

34

Shabriha

14

30

Aitaniyeh

6

7

Total

189

304

 

 

Education on Reproductive Health by Trainees – Youth – South- 2011

 

Location

No. of Lectures

No. of Participants

Subjects

Males

Females

Jal Al Bahar

5

-

7

Genital Inflammations – Menstruation – AIDS – Anemia – Definition of Reproductive Health – Breast Cancer – Puberty – Physiology of Woman – Early Marriage – Dialogue & Partnership in Marriage – Participation in Public Life

Kfar Badda

3

4

7

Lower Qasmiyeh

2

-

12

Wasta

1

-

5

Upper Qasmiyeh

2

-

12

Nahr El Samer

2

-

7

North Burghuliyeh

9

2

7

Total

24

6

57

 

 

Reproductive Health Lectures by Trainees –Women & Youth- Beirut – 2011

 

Location

No. of Lectures

Type of Participants

No. of Participants

Subjects

Males

Females

Shatila

12

Women

-

29

Anemia – Genital Inflammations – Hazards of Smoking on Fetus – Breast Feeding – Proper Nutrition During Pregnancy – Compulsory Miscarriage – Breast Cancer – Early Marriage – Physiology of

Daouk

4

Women

-

26

Said Ghawash

32

Women

-

50

Gaza Buildings

14

Women

-

39

Mar Elias Camp

2

Youth

-

63

Total

64

 

 

207

 

 

Health Campaigns implemented by local trainee women:

 

a-       Campaign on composting:

 

Since one of PARD’s main objectives is to protect the environment thus preserving health, and because one of the most important causes for pollution is garbage piling in cities and towns which will help in transmission of diseases through the insects and rodents which gather around the garbage, PARD is trying to decrease the amount of garbage and pollution in the gatherings.

 

In addition to that, many chemical fertilizers used to grow fruits and vegetables are dangerous to people’s health and well being.

 

So, PARD decided to start a new project “Composting” that will help in decreasing the amount of garbage, percentage of pollution, help in the production of food that has a small amount of chemical materials and limit the amount of chemicals in the soil and water.

 

The composting project which will teach the farmers and families the importance of the compost, and the easiest way to prepare it was divided into different stages:

 

T.O.T. “Training of trainers” on composting for the benefit of PARD’s Community health Workers, the Health Inspector, the first aid team and volunteers.

 

Duration of the workshop was 3 days. The workshop was called “How to prepare your own compost”

 

 

The training context was as follows:

 

  1. zWhat is composting?

Composting is a natural action, where natural creatures found in nature dissemble and dissolute organic wastes and transfers it to natural dung.

 

  1. zImportance of composting:

 

1-       Decrease the environmental damage

2-       Decrease the quantity of accumulated wastes, thus decreasing the percentage of pollution (Water- Air- Soil)

3-       Protect the human health as a result of having agricultural products devoid of chemical materials’ precipitation (poisons used in planting)

4-       Protect some insects that are essential for the human life cycle (Bees and Worms)

5-       Increase the soil fertility (soil vitamin)

6-       Economical benefit for farmers through saving the money they used to pay for buying chemical dung

7-       Obtain agricultural products of good quality and quantity

8-       Increase the profit due to the customers’’ increase in demand on the organic agricultural products

 

As explained earlier, wastes and organic dung are interrelated and have common benefits: decrease the percentage of pollution, decrease the environmental damage. In addition, garbage is a basic part of organic dung to get a good agricultural product.

 

 

  1. zWastes (How is garbage related to compost?):

 

  • Definition:

It is all what we throw outside the house, hospital, industry, popular markets, etc, from food junk and other things that people are no not in need of anymore.

 

  • Kinds of Wastes:

1-       Organic liquid solid wastes

2-       Solid wastes: glass, plastic, iron, etc

3-       Organic wastes: all what is decomposed of food junk (meat, vegetables, etc)

4-       Liquid wastes: sanitation waste water (houses, hospitals, industries, etc)

 

  • Hazards of wastes:

It is necessary to get rid of wastes in the proper health way, else it would be of danger to the environment (Pollution of air, water and soil), the humans (spread of diseases, spread of insects and rodents), and the animals (extinction of certain kinds of animals which threaten the life cycle).

 

  • Role of the family in getting rid of wastes in a proper healthy way:

1-       Secure a proper bin for wastes at home

2-       Put a plastic bag in each bin

3-       Close the bin properly

4-       Do not put liquid wastes in the plastic bin not to prevent its leakage

5-       Put plastic and glass in a separate bin for the ability to benefit from them later on

 

  • Ways to get rid of wastes:

1-       Burning ( + - )

2-       Healthy bury ( + - )

3-       Recycling

4-       Makeshift dumps

5-       Composting

 

Since composting is the most positive way to get rid of house made wastes, we mention hereby the steps to get an organic agricultural product through organic dung:

               

 

Implementing two practical workshops in Shabriha with these main themes:

 

 

A-      Using a pile to prepare compost

B-       Using a plastic barrel to prepare compost

These two workshops were carried out as an experiment and to introduce the trainees to the principles of composting.

 

Those trained local health educators conducted a campaign on composting for the benefit of the communities they are related to.

 

                        421 women and youth benefited (3656 females & 55 males) from this campaign.

 

The campaign continued throughout the year 2011. The trained local health educators provided 77 lectures to 611 women, 143 youth and 80 children on the importance of composting in protecting the environment and creating income generating projects.

 

The demonstration plots are up and running and compost is being used on the gardens at the demonstration plots. So far, 6 women have prepared 6 successful compost pits and 5 women and men have applied compost through special barrels.

 

Ground Compost Pits:

 

Location

No. of Pits

Burghliyeh North

1

Wasta

1

Aitaniyeh

1

Shabriha

1

Qasmiyeh

2

Total

6

 

 

Compost Barrels:

 

Location

No. of Barrels

Burghliyeh North

1

Jal El Bahar

1

Jim Jim

1

Shabriha

2

Total

5

 

 

The compost produce was used as a fertilizer for growing of parsley, spearmint, tomato, garden cress, zucchini, lettuce and fruits.

 

At the beginning only housewives were targeted. An unexpected result is that youth from the youth groups have also become very interested in composting. They have requested to receive training. The technical expert for the project is training on proper ways to do composting.

 

A wonderful unexpected benefit is that now the women seem to have a desire to want to reduce their waste even more in the household! After seeing the difference taking out the degradable goods can make, they have started to ask about recycling of glass, plastic, and paper. This has not been done yet in Palestinian gatherings/camps. So if we could use their energy and get this project off the ground as well, it could have a huge impact (reduction) on the amount of solid waste output.

 

 

Raising Awareness on Composting

 

Location

Type of Participants

No. of Participants

No. of Lectures

Males

Females

Qasmiyeh

Women

-

117

10

Youth

52

23

10

Children

15

13

1

Burghuliyeh

Women

-

70

6

Youth

6

38

3

Jal Al Bahar

Women

-

30

3

Youth

11

-

1

Wasta

Women

-

101

9

Youth

4

7

1

Children

5

3

1

Shabriha

Women

-

72

6

Children

21

23

2

Maashouk

Women

-

22

1

Kfar Badda

Women

-

122

16

Sikkeh

Women

-

22

1

Aitaniyeh

Women

-

15

1

Nahr El Samer

Women

-

40

4

Youth

-

2

1

Total

 

114

720

77

 

834

 

 

 

b-       Campaign on combating Anemia:

 

Based on statistics prepared by UNRWA, 80% of the pregnant women in Burj Al Shamali camp located in Tyre in the South of Lebanon, suffered from Anemia. Accordingly, a group of international and local NGOs met with UNRWA to organize an awareness campaign on the prevention and management of Anemia, with focus on the pregnant women.

 

In 2010, PARD’s local health educators benefited 115 women in 6 South gatherings, and 63 children from 4 gatherings on the cause, management and prevention of Anemia. Instructive materials were produced including a nutrition calendar with support from MAP (UK) and Anera which were distributed through PARD’s clinics in the South.

 

The medical team of PARD instructed people visiting the clinics on the dangers of Anemia and the prevention steps.

 

This campaign continued throughout the first quarter of 2012. 31 lectures on causes, symptoms and prevention of Anemia were given to 453 women, youth, men and children in three gatherings in Beirut, three local NGOs and one UNIFEL clinic in the South.

 

 

        Campaign for Raising Awareness on Anemia- Women- Beirut- 2011

 

 

Location

Type of Participants

No. of Participants

No. of Lectures

Gaza Buildings

Women

102

10

Said Ghawash

Women

122

11

Daouk

Women

62

5

Total

 

286

26

 

 

Campaign for Raising Awareness on Anemia- Women- other NGOs- South- 2011

 

Name of NGO

Type of Participants

No. of Participants

No. of Lectures

Males

Females

Norwegian People’s Aid Vocational Center- Saida

Youth

50

46

1

Rahmeh Center- Saida

Women

-

35

1

Justice Club- Qasmiyeh

Youth

5

-

1

UNIFEL Clinic- North Burghuliyeh

Women & men

4

20

1

Children

7

1

Total

 

167

5

 

 

 

c-       Campaign on Raising Awareness on Personal Hygiene:

 

Based on the fact that cases of children with scabies were reported at UNRWA schools in the South during 2010, and before schools opened in September 2011, the local health educators saw fit to raise awareness on personal hygiene and primary teeth care.

 

 

Campaign on Primary Teeth Care – South

 

Location

Type of Participants

No. of Participants

No. of Lectures

Males

Females

Burghuliyeh

Women

-

8

1

Youth

8

-

1

Qasmiyeh

Women

-

10

7

Youth

7

12

3

Children

1

7

1

Shabriha

Women

-

6

2

Children

10

4

1

Jal Al Bahar

Women

-

15

2

Children

6

9

1

Nahr El Samer

Women

-

15

1

Children

6

5

1

Wasta

Youth

9

5

2

Aitaniyeh

Women

-

6

1

Kfar Badda

Children

8

8

2

Women

-

10

4

Jim Jeem

Women

-

8

1

Total

 

55

119

31

174

 

 

For the purpose of providing preventive health care services for the benefit of susceptible women in 13 gatherings in the South and Beirut, PARD decided to conduct 1 Pap smear and 1 mammography campaigns (one of each per year). This decision was taken because women in the gatherings do not benefit from these services in UNRWA clinics except when they notice the symptoms of the disease (no preventive care in UNRWA clinics) these women are then transferred to private clinics to conduct these tests. To conquer the fear of most women from doing the tests, the local health educators conducted an awareness campaign to explain the benefits of early exams for taking early remedial actions when necessary.

 

Early Detection of Breast & Uterus Cancer – Women – South

 

Location

No. of Lectures

No. of Participants

Jal al Bahar

9

50

Maashouk

21

78

Nahr Al Samer

7

44

Upper Qasmiyeh

13

95

Lower Qasmiyeh

12

80

Wasta

17

154

Shabriha

15

190

Kfar Badda

11

47

Jeem Jeem

2

32

South Burghuliyeh

1

12

Sikkeh

2

47

Aitaniyeh

6

30

North Burghuliyeh

1

7

Total

117

866

 

 

 

Early Detection of Breast Cancer & Uterus Cancer – Women – Beirut

 

Location

No. of Lectures

No. of Participants

Daouk

18

88

Gaza Buildings

18

54

Said Ghawash

27

107

Total

63

249

 

 

 

d-       Summary of various health campaigns:

 

Location

Theme of campaign

Type of participants

No. of participants

South

Raising Awareness on Composting

Women, Youth

& Children

834

Beirut

Raising Awareness on Anemia

Women

286

South

Women, Men, Youth, Children

167

South

Raising Awareness on Personal Hygiene

Women & Children

174

South

Early detection of breast & uterus cancer

Women

866

Beirut

249

Total

 

 

2576

 

 

Sunday, 17 June 2012 11:16

Behavioral Change

Health Education provided by PARD’s community health workers

 

To induce behavioral change on health issues, PARD’s community health workers raised awareness on different health issues for the benefit of women, children, youth and local NGOs in the south and Beirut as follows:

 

 

 

Participants

Groups

Lectures

Women

411

16

97

Children

174

10

84

Youth

288

13

34

Total

873

39

215

 

 

Health Subjects introduced to women focused on children diseases, chronic, protecting the environment, contagious diseases, hazards of smoking and fireworks, benefits of different fruits and vegetables.

 

Health subjects introduced to children focused on hygiene, nutrition, primary eye and teeth care, and home accidents.

 

Those introduced to youth focused on drug addiction, menstruation and puberty.

 

Methods used include brainstorming, role playing, film discussion, case introductions (sharing experience), discussion or debate, information testing, game playing, power point presentation, means of verification include posters, slides, films, handouts, brochures, games, related materials, flip charts, practical applications.

 

Health education aims at informing people, changing the behavior and combat wrong beliefs which appear during health sessions (every year we discover wrong beliefs). Some wrong beliefs circulated among the woman in the community are:

 

  • To become thinner, women are encouraged to put their fingers in the pharynx to induce vomiting after each meal.
  • To treat ear inflammations, use a mixture of crushed garlic with oil.
  • To treat an itching ear use boiled oil.
  • Cover the body of a newborn with salt.
  • Put kohl (eyeliner) on the newborn’s navel (umbilicus) to be treated.

 

Such beliefs are discussed whereby the negative effects are emphasized and substitute treatments are suggested.

 

Health education also focused on reproductive health issues in the gatherings of Beirut and the South. 144 lectures were given by PARD’s community health workers to 832 women and youth as follows:

 

Type of participants

No. of lectures

No. of participants

No. of groups

Women

128

630

15

Youth

16

202

8

Total

144

832

23

 

 

Health Education lectures Conducted by PARD’s community health workers (CHW) were as follows:

 

 

Health Education - Women – South 2011

 

Location

No. of lectures

No. of participants

Subjects

Jal al Bahar

4

17

Home Accidents – Preservation of Health During Fasting – Anemia – Sun Stroke – Diarrhea – Vomiting – Hypertension – Diabetes – Personal Hygiene – Scabies – Food Poisoning - Tuberculosis – Combating Mosquitoes – Combating Lice – Essential Drugs – Water Preservation – Composting – Hazards of Insecticides – Water Pollution – Diarrhea – Proper garbage disposal – Meningitis – Vaccination – Common Colds – Primary Teeth Care – Jaundice – Heart Diseases

Nahr El Samer

8

25

Qasmiyeh

13

60

Wasta

24

58

Sikkeh

8

46

Burghuliyeh

15

50

Maashouk

4

20

Kfar Badda

2

20

Jim Jeem

4

8

Shabriha

7

19

Total

89

323

 

 

Health Education – Children – South 2011

 

Location

No. of lectures

No. of Participants

Subjects

Males

Females

Jal Al Bahar

14

15

5

Hazards of Smoking – Home Accidents – Primary Teeth Care – Nutrition in School – School Accidents – Preserving Health during fasting – Personal Hygiene – Protection of Environment – Water Pollution – Sun Stroke – Proper Health Habits – Enteric Worms – Garbage Sorting – Protection from Burns – Scabies – Diarrhea – Hazards of Fire works

 

Nahr El Samer

5

7

6

Qasmiyeh

7

17

7

Wasta

13

18

12

Shabriha

5

5

9

Burghuliyeh

24

11

18

Maashouk

2

3

5

Sikkeh

10

7

11

Kfar Badda

2

8

5

Total

82

91

78

169

 

 

Health Education – Youth – South 2011

 

Location

No. of lectures

No. of Participants

Subjects

Males

Females

Wasta

3

7

9

Genital Inflammations – Hazards of Smoking – Preserving Health during Fasting – Home Accidents – Food Poisoning – Enteric Worms – Primary Teeth Care – Garbage Sorting – Water Pollution – Protection from Insecticides – Essential Drugs – Diarrhea – Diabetes – Heart Diseases – Proper Diet – Drug Addiction

 

Shabriha

3

9

9

Burghuliyeh

2

 

18

Kfar Badda

2

4

3

Sikkeh

6

7

11

Maashouk

 

 

 

Total

16

27

50

77

 

 

 

 

 

Health Education – Other Organizations– South 2011

 

Name of NGO

No. of Lectures

Type of

participants

No. of Participants

Subjects

Males

Females

Mufti Jalal El Dien center

3

Youth

-

35

Drugs addiction- Hazards of smoking- Nutrition- Diabetes- Common colds- Diarrhea- Jaundice

NPA Vocational Training center Saida

12

Youth

35

50

Unifel Dispensary South Burghuliyeh

3

Women

-

15

UNRWA school Bisan

1

Youth

-

65

Rahme Center Saida

1

Women

-

38

Total

20

 

35

203

238

 

 

Health Lectures for other NGOs- Beirut 2011

 

Name of NGO

Type of participants

No. of lectures

No. of participants

Subjects

M

F

Philanthropic Assistance Association

Youth

2

8

18

Hazards of smoking- Hepatitis

Women

1

-

24

Total

 

3

8

42

 

 

Health Education – Women– Beirut 2011

 

Location

No. of Group

No. of Participants

No. of Lectures

Subjects

PARD’s CDC center

1

5

1

Rota virus- Hazards of smoking

Gaza buildings

1

4

1

Shatila

1

2

1

Total

3

11

3

 

 

Health Education – Children– Beirut 2011

 

Location

No. of Group

No. of Participants

No. of Lectures

Subjects

Shatila

1

1

4

2

Primary teeth care- Nutrition & anemia

Total

1

5

2

 

 

Health Education – Other Organizations – Beirut – Women, children & youth 2010

 

Name of NGO’s

No. of lectures

Type of participants

No. of participants

Subjects

Mufti Jalal El Dien

3

Youth

-

35

Genital inflammations- Menstruation physiology of women- Sexually transmitted diseases- Puberty

UNRWA school Bisan

1

Youth

-

65

Rahme Center Saida

1

Women

-

38

NPA Vocational Training center Saida

2

Youth

46

50

Total

7

 

46

188

234

 

 

Reproductive Health Lectures – Beirut – Women 2011

 

Location

No. of Lectures

Type of Participants

No. of Participants

Subjects

Males

Females

Shatila

12

Women

-

29

Anemia – Genital Inflammations – Hazards of Smoking on Fetus – Breast Feeding – Proper Nutrition During Pregnancy – Compulsory Miscarriage – Breast Cancer – Early Marriage – Physiology of

Daouk

4

Women

-

26

Said Ghawash

32

Women

-

50

Gaza Buildings

14

Women

-

39

Mar Elias Camp

2

Youth

-

63

Total

64

 

 

207

 

 

Education on Reproductive Health by PARD Local Health Educators - Women – South 2011

 

Location

No. of Lectures

No. of Participants

Subjects

Jim jeem

3

8

Family planning- Pap smear- Sexual relationship- Newborn care- Pregnancy- Hazards of smoking on pregnant women- Breast feeding- Pregnant women care- Hymen- Early marriage- Puberty- Uterus cancer- Psychology of pregnant woman

Kfar Badda

3

11

Shabriha

5

24

Wasta

6

29

Sikkeh

10

13

South Burghuliyeh

7

25

Maashouk

4

20

Dispensary- Shabriha

17

197

Dispensary- Wasta

8

58

Total

63

385

 

 

Education on Reproductive Health by PARD Local Health Educators- Youth- South 2011

 

Location

No. of Lectures

No. of Participants

Subjects

Males

Females

Wasta

1

-

7

Genital inflammations- Menstruation- Puberty- Nutrition

Shabriha

1

-

7

South Burghuliyeh

3

5

8

Sikkeh

4

2

13

Kfar Badda

1

3

7

Total

10

10

42

52

 

 

 

Saturday, 16 June 2012 12:47

Interventions of Health Education Program

The interventions of the Health Education Program are as follows:

 

Behavioral change:

 

  • Health Education provided by PARD’s community health workers

 

Participation & Peer Education:

 

  • Health Education provided by trained local women (trainees)
  • Health Campaigns

 

Capacity Building

 

  • Workshops, Trainings, and Seminars
  • Training on composting and other subjects
Saturday, 16 June 2012 12:40

Introduction To Health Education

Health education is essential if people are to learn how to live healthy lives and avoid diseases. It helps them understand what health is and how to look after it, and also about the need for health services and disease- control programmes. Health education can show people that good health and health services are a basic human right; it can explain that health services are important for development.

 

Health education, as part of primary prevention, helps people to understand their bodies and value their health, to know about diseases, and how to make the best use of organized health services, such as MCH clinics. It can motivate them to look after themselves by practicing hygienic personal habits, such as using safe water, mosquito nets, and child- spacing methods. It can encourage them to be responsible for their own environment in terms of water supplies and excreta disposal. Health education can also bring health workers in closer touch with the needs of the people they serve so that, by working together, they can develop a healthier life for the community as a whole.

 

In secondary prevention, health education can help people understand and value different screening procedures, such as those involved in MCH services. It teaches about the early symptoms and signs of important diseases (e.g. leprosy and tuberculosis) so that people can recognize them and go for check up at an early stage. It can help them co-operate in reporting diseases in surveillance programmes for such diseases as measles, rabies and malaria.

 

Health education in tertiary prevention can help people to understand diseases better and to cooperate with the medical services in carrying out treatment properly- for example, continuing with treatment for tuberculosis until cured. While people are attending for treatment, health educators can give them new and up-to-date information about how to prevent diseases such as malaria and gastroenteritis. Health education posters in clinic waiting areas can also be used to spread information.

Saturday, 16 June 2012 11:44

Rodent & Vector Control

Spraying of insesticides

 

Rodents and insects constituted a major source of nuisance to the residents of the gatherings, especially during summer when the number of insects increases tremendously. To control the problem, PARD implemented four spraying campaigns in each of the 9 gatherings in the South and five gatherings in Beirut. A time lag of 1 month is taken between the initial spraying campaign and the second whereby afterwards, a 10-day time lag is required. Concerning the quantity of insesticides dissolved in water, instructions are followed in accordance to the brand used, as defined by the country of origin.

       

       

        Tables of spraying insesticides in Beirut and South gatherings during 2011:

 

Name of gatherings in Beirut

Quantity spread in m3

Salwa Al Hout Building

3,300

Daouk

900

Said Ghawash

2,400

Gaza Buildings

11,100

Sabra

600

Shatila

16,500

Total

34,800 m3

 

 

Name of gatherings in South

Quantity spread in m3

Maashouk

2100

Shabriha

3475

Burghuliyeh

6000

Qasmiyeh

4600

Wasta

1450

Aitaniyeh

1450

Jal al Bahar

3600

Kfar Badda

1500

Jim Jeem

900

Sikkeh

500

Total

25,575 m3

 

  • Targeted pests are mosquitoes, flies, flea and other pests
  • 200 extra Liters of insesticides are always sprayed after cleaning of public zones in Shatila camp and Gaza buildings

 

 

 

Rodent Control:

Schedule of Rodenticides distributed – 2011 – South Gatherings

 

Location

No. of Bags Distributed

Burghuliyeh

479

Maashouk

235

Aitaniyeh

105

Qasmiyeh

490

Shabriha

246

Wasta

86

Sikkeh

78

Kfar Badda

115

Jal Al Bahar

170

Nahr El Samer

11

Jim Jeem

45

Total

2060

 

 

 

Schedule of Rodenticides distributed – 2011 – Beirut Gatherings

 

Location

No. of Bags Distributed

Shatila camp

533

Gaza Buildings

670

Daouk

85

Sabra

17

Salwa Al Hout Buildings

55

Jinah

7

Said Ghawash

75

Total

1442

 

 

 

 

Distribution of materials in the gatherings:

 

Schedule of distributions in the South & Beirut gatherings

 

Materials

 

 

 

Location

Water filters

Anemia booklet

Essential drugs booklet

Nutrition during pregnancy calendar

Tooth brushes

Lice shampoo

Women underwear

Elder people diapers

Wipes

Baby Diapers

Napkins

Burghulieh

112

35

28

12

120

69

18

4

-

-

-

Maashouk

20

20

20

-

98

94

-

6

-

-

-

Aitaniyeh

15

10

-

10

26

21

12

-

-

-

-

Qasmiyeh

102

34

40

92

186

32

-

16

-

-

-

Shabriha

20

20

32

22

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

Wasta

44

20

34

11

72

-

12

6

-

-

-

Sikkeh

20

20

34

26

-

-

12

6

-

-

-

Kfar Badda

20

10

-

49

38

-

13

5

-

-

-

Jal Al Bahar

47

24

10

12

96

9

12

10

-

-

-

Nahr El Samer

17

10

20

-

96

11

-

3

-

-

-

Jim Jeem

-

10

-

-

24

8

-

1

-

-

-

Beirut

-

21

-

-

18

62

-

-

33

26

32

Total

417

234

218

234

774

306

79

60

33

26

32

 

Figure1:

 

Percentages and number of people living in the Southern gatherings who benefited from the solid waste collection process

 

Figure2:

 

Percentages and number of people living in the Beirut gatherings and Shatila Camp who benefited from the solid waste collection process

Thursday, 14 June 2012 15:26

Solid Waste Management

 

Collecting, hauling and disposal of solid waste

 

Beirut Area:

  • 13990 m3 (4941 tons) of domestic solid waste was collected and transported from Shatila camp in Beirut by one truck, on a daily basis. This service benefits 16000 people living in Shatila.

 

South Area:

  • 3055 m3 (1079 tons) of domestic solid waste was collected and transported from the Southern gatherings of Kfar Badda, Jim Jim, Wasta, Aitaniyyeh, Qasmiyeh, Shabriha, Burghuliyeh and Maashouk by two trucks, three times per week. This service benefits 13425 people living in these gatherings.

 

 

Cleaning of the public zones

         

Beirut Area:

  • The stairs, entrance of buildings, halls and pathways in the four Gaza buildings were cleaned on a daily basis by two full-time laborers.
  • The Daouk zone near the nursery was cleaned once every 6 months from accumulated rubbish.

 

Composting

 

Since one of PARD’s main objectives is to protect the environment thus preserving health, and because one of the most important causes for pollution is garbage piling in cities and towns which will help in transmission of diseases through the insects and rodents which gather around the garbage, PARD is trying to decrease the amount of garbage and pollution in the gatherings.

 In addition to that, many chemical fertilizers used to grow fruits and vegetables are dangerous to people’s health and well being.

 So, PARD decided to start a new project “Composting” that will help in decreasing the amount of garbage, percentage of pollution, help in the production of food that has a small amount of chemical materials and limit the amount of chemicals in the soil and water.

 

PARD is implementing a project on composting which includes training, raising awareness, and implementing household composting projects.

A workshop on composting was conducted for 12 local health educators:

The purpose of the training was to introduce the local community to the subject of composting through the trained Community health workers/ educators.

 

The course included:

 

1-       How to prepare compost by using pile?

2-       How to prepare compost by using plastic barrel?

 

Those trained local health educators conducted a campaign on composting for the benefit of the communities they are related to.

 

In 2010, 421 women and youth benefited (366 females and 55 males) from this campaign. In 2011, 834 more people benefited from raising awareness sessions.

 

 

Location Type of Participants No. of Participants No. of Lectures
Males Females
Qasmiyeh Women - 117 10
Youth 52 23 10
Children 15 13 1
Burghuliyeh Women - 70 6
Youth 6 38 3
Jal Al Bahar Women - 30 3
Youth 11 - 1
Wasta Women - 101 9
Youth 4 7 1
Children 5 3 1
Shabriha Women - 72 6
Children 21 23 2
Maashouk Women - 22 1
Kfar Badda Women - 122 16
Sikkeh Women - 22 1
Aitaniyeh Women - 15 1
Nahr El Samer Women - 40 4
Youth - 2 1
Total 114 720 77
834

 

The demonstration plots are up and running and compost is being used on the gardens at the demonstration plots. So far, 6 women have prepared 6 successful compost pits and 5 women and men have applied compost through special barrels.

 

Ground Compost Pits:

 

Location No. of Pits
Burghliyeh North 1
Wasta 1
Aitaniyeh 1
Shabriha 1
Qasmiyeh 2
Total 6

 

 

Compost Barrels:

 

Location No. of Barrels
Burghliyeh North 1
Jal El Bahar 1
Jim Jim 1
Shabriha 2
Total 5

 

 

The compost produce was used as a fertilizer for growing of parsley, spearmint, tomato, garden cress, zucchini, lettuce and fruits.

 

At the beginning only housewives were targeted. An unexpected result is that youth from the youth groups have also become very interested in composting. They have requested to receive training. The technical expert for the project is training on proper ways to do composting.

A wonderful unexpected benefit is that now the women seem to have a desire to want to reduce their waste even more in the household! After seeing the difference taking out the degradable goods can make, they have started to ask about recycling of glass, plastic, and paper. This has not been done yet in Palestinian gatherings/camps. So if we could use their energy and get this project off the ground as well, it could have a huge impact (reduction) on the amount of solid waste output.

 

 

Cleaning campaigns

 

At least once a year, before implementing spraying of insecticides, each gathering organizes a cleaning campaign whereby a team of workers and volunteers cleanup their gatherings.

 2011, such a campaign was implemented through PARD’s community health workers, health inspector, drivers and workers of the garbage trucks, members of the women committees and their children, members of the popular committees, members of the first aid teams (youth) and volunteers from the local communities. The campaign covered 13 gatherings in the South and Beirut, and the collected wastes were removed by PARD’s three garbage trucks and deposited at designated places.

 

Thursday, 14 June 2012 14:34

Cleaning Water Reservoirs

 major water reservoirs were cleaned and sterilized in 6 locations as such:

 

 

Location

No. of water reservoirs

Maashouk

1

Shabriha

1

Nroth Burghuliyeh

1

South Burghuliyeh

1

Wasta

1

Aitaniyeh

1

Total

6

 

 

Cleaning the reservoirs was implemented locally by volunteers. The task was organized by both the women and popular committees in the gatherings. Through raising awareness on water issues in the communities in the gatherings, people were urged to clean up the household reservoirs. Instructions on proper ways to clean them were distributed.

 

Training local water caretakers

 

During April 2011, a workshop was conducted for the benefit of the following: four water caretakers from the gatherings of Shabriha, Wasta, Qasmiyeh, and South Burghuliyeh, 2 members from the popular committees of Aitaniyeh and South Burghuliyeh, and the head of the civil committee in upper Qasmiyeh.

 

The workshop aimed at building up the capacities of the local people who control the local water sources through raising awareness of water borne diseases and the proper techniques in applying chlorine to the water for disinfection.

 

Raising Awareness

 

For the sake of raising awareness of the local community on the preservation & disinfection of water, in addition to the diseases caused by water pollutions, local health educators were trained on the subject.

 

Those educators then implemented an awareness campaign at their local gatherings in the South & Beirut for the benefit of women, children & youth as follows: (Subjects include the importance of water to life, consummation, sterility, water borne diseases).

 

During 2011, 965 women, children, and youth benefited from the campaign. The campaign covered the gatherings of Jal El Bahr, Nahr El Samer, Maashouk, Shabriha, Qasmiyeh, Burghuliyeh (South & North), Wasta, Aitaniyeh, Kfar Badda, and Jim jeem.

 

Target groups included women, youth, children and men. The campaign was implemented by a team including PARD’s community health workers, local health educators, and local animators of children activities.

 

Location

Type of Participants

No. of Participants

No. of Lectures

Males

Females

Qasmiyeh

Women

-

107

9

Youth

42

28

7

Children

59

54

5

Burghuliyeh

Women

-

118

9

Youth

10

24

5

Children

27

30

4

Aitaniyeh

Women

-

16

2

Maashouk

Women

-

32

3

Children

6

4

1

Kfar Badda

Women

-

63

3

Nahr El Samer

Women

-

61

8

Youth

6

2

1

Children

16

7

3

Jal Al Bahar

Women

-

49

1

Youth

5

2

1

Children

16

5

1

Sikkeh

Women

-

22

2

Youth

4

2

1

Children

9

27

3

Shabriha

Women

-

23

3

Youth

6

3

1

Children

6

37

3

Jim Jeem

Women

-

15

1

Wasta

Children

2

20

2

Total

 

214

751

79

 

 

965

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pumping out of wastewater, cleaning manholes and maintenance of wastewater network

 

(to prevent infiltration of wastewater into drinking water network):

 

PARD operates a special truck for suctioning of septic tanks in the Southern gatherings. Some gatherings are not linked to major wastewater pipelines and therefore discharge their household wastewater into primitive ground septic tanks. These usually overflow and contaminate the land and water sources around them. As such, to prevent this from happening, PARD caters for this need through a system of on-call duty of the specialized truck for suction of black water in return for low fees.

 

 

Maintenance of sewage infrastructure in Beirut gatherings:

 

Location

Type of Maintenance (sewage)

Quantity

Said Ghawash

Cleaning of manholes

41

Cleaning of Network sewer pipes

70

Daouk

Cleaning of manholes

94

Cleaning of Major Sewage Pipes

Cleaning of Secondary Sewer Pipes regularly

16

Shatila

Suction of Waste Water from Basement of PRCS Center

once

Cleaning of three sewage networks

1

Gaza Buildings

Cleaning of basement for three buildings

6

Inspection of Network (Gaza Building 3)

2

Cleaning Roof & Entrance (Gaza Building 1)

1

Cleaning of Common Grounds

regularly

Cleaning of Sewer Networks

6

Cleaning of Manholes

3

Sabra

Cleaning of Manholes

21

 

 

 Maintenance of sewage infrastructure in the South gatherings:

 

Location

Type of Maintenance (sewage)

Frequency

Qasmiyeh

Maintenance of Major Pipe

1

Cleaning of Manholes

3

Aitaniyeh

Cleaning of Major Sewer Septic Tank

1

 

 

 Suction of percolating pits in the South gatherings:

 

Location

No. of Pits

No. of Operation

Rachidiyeh

58

53

Wasta

10

7

Maashouk

28

20

Shabriha

13

15

Qasmiyeh

14

9

Burghuliyeh

30

28

Kfar Badda

14

11

Jal Al Bahar

5

3

Al Bas

6

6

Total

178

152

 

Page 5 of 6

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